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dictionary_extension [2011/11/18 20:03]
peterbuenk
dictionary_extension [2018/10/31 17:03] (current)
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-====== 1. Domain Dictionaries and Dictionary ​Extensions ​======+====== 1. Domain Dictionaries and Dictionary ​Development ​======
  
-The general purpose ​technical ​[[:Gellish English Dictionary]] ​may not include all the concepts and definitions that may be required in a particular application domain. ​Therefore, the Gellish language is extensible with additional vocabulary and grammar. The vocabulary can be extended by means of the definition of additional concepts and the grammar and semantics ​can be extended by means of the definition of additional ​relation types. Such additional definitions may be intermingled with other Gellish expressions or they may be collected in a separate amendment. The definition of extensions are themselves also expressed in Gellish.+The general purpose [[:Gellish English ​Dictionary|Gellish Taxonomic ​Dictionary]] ​will never be complete. When it does not contain ​concepts and definitions that are required in a particular application domain ​it should be extendedOr when an organization wants to use its own terminology, the dictionary needs to be extended as well. And when individual things are defined as part of user data, then those individual concepts are also added to the dictionary. The Gellish language is therefore ​extensible with additional vocabulary and grammar, not only centrally, but also on-the-fly whenever users have a need. The vocabulary can be extended by means of the definition of additional concepts and the semantic expression capabilities ​can be extended by means of the definition of additional ​kinds of relations. Such additional definitions may be intermingled with other Gellish expressions or they may be collected in a separate amendment. The definition of extensions are themselves also expressed in Gellish.
  
-Organizations that serve business area, such as branch organizations,​ may wish to develop a complete Domain Dictionary, using the [[:Gellish Modeling Method]]. The concepts in such a Domain Dictionary are also arranged in a Taxonomy (a subtype - supertype hierarchy) so that the top concepts in the Domain Dictionary are subtypes of concepts in the Gellish Dictionary. This is necessary to enable semantic verification of the correctness ​of Gellish expressions when using the concepts from the Domain Dictionary.+High quality taxonomic dictionaries for various domains should satisfy ​number ​of quality criteria.
  
-To facilitate ​increase ​world-wide use of a common language it is strongly recommended ​to propose ​extensions ​to the general ​[[http://​opensource.org/​docs/​os|Open Source]] and public domain ​Gellish English Dictionary via this website.+The prime quality rule is that each concept shall be defined as being a subtype of  at least one other concept, which is called its supertype concept. Such a subtype-supertype relation implies that the definition of the supertype concept is also applicable to all its subtype concepts, whereas the subtype concept is further defined by additional relations (that express constraints). It also means that definitions,​ knowledge and requirements about concepts are "​inherited"​ to all their subtype concepts along the hierarchy. For example, when the Gellish English Taxonomic Dictionary contains that a motorway is a subtype of road, then software can conclude that government rules for roads in general) are also applicable for motorways. This enables that the taxonomy implies that it is superfluous to respecify the applicability of those rules for the subtypes of road again. Furthermore rules that only apply to motorways should be related to the concept motorway (and not to road). Also characteristics and possibilities are inherited, unless possibilities are constrained for the subtypes. 
 + 
 +Organizations that serve a business area, such as branch organizations,​ may wish to develop a complete Domain Taxonomic Dictionary, using the [[:Gellish Modeling Method|Gellish Modeling Methodology]]. The concepts in such a Domain Dictionary should then also be arranged as a Taxonomy (a subtype - supertype hierarchy) in such a way that the top concepts in the Domain Dictionary are subtypes of concepts in the Gellish Taxonomic Dictionary. This is necessary for enabling semantic verification of the correctness of Gellish expressions when using the concepts from the Domain Dictionary. 
 + 
 +To facilitate ​increased ​world-wide ​development and use of a common language it is strongly recommended ​that required ​extensions ​are proposed as extensions of the general Gellish English ​Taxonomic ​Dictionary via this website.
  
 ====== 2. How to define new concepts ====== ====== 2. How to define new concepts ======
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 For example, a cooling system is a system that is intended to be suitable to cool some kinds of things. The concept ‘cooling system’ with this definition can be added to the Gellish Smart Dictionary by specification of a line in a Gellish Database table. For example, a cooling system is a system that is intended to be suitable to cool some kinds of things. The concept ‘cooling system’ with this definition can be added to the Gellish Smart Dictionary by specification of a line in a Gellish Database table.
  
-The core of such a line with th definition of a concept is as follows:+The core of such a line with the definition of a concept is as follows:
  
-^UID-1^Name of left hand object^Fact ID^Relation type ID^Name of relation ​type^UID-2^Name of right hand object^Description^ +^UID of left hand object^Name of left hand object^UID of an idea^UID of kind of relation^Name of kind of relation^UID ​of right hand object^Name of right hand object^Description^ 
-| 1 | cooling system | 2 | 1146 | is a specialization ​of | 3 | system | intended to be suitable to cool some kind of things|+| 1 | cooling system | 2 | 1146 | is a kind of | 3 | system | intended to be suitable to cool some kind of things|
  
-Note that the unique identifiers 1, 2 and 3 are selected from a private range. When formally added to the Gellish Dictionary ​they are allocated by the Gellish language manager. The number 1146 is an example of an identifier that formally identifies the Gellish phrase 'is a specialization ​of' and that is part of the Gellish language.+Note that the unique identifiers 1, 2 and 3 are selected from a private range or should have a prefix. When formally added to the Gellish Dictionary ​the UIDs are allocated by the Gellish language manager. The number 1146 is an example of an identifier that formally identifies the Gellish phrase 'is a kind of' and that is part of the Gellish language.
  
 ==== 2.3 Create Definition Models (optional) ==== ==== 2.3 Create Definition Models (optional) ====
  
-Definitions can be extended with the explicit modeling of facts that are by definition ​true for any object of such a kind. A definition model is defined as the collection of the facts about a concept (kind of thing) that are by definition ​true. For example, a pipe has by definition as aspect a diameter and a centrifugal pump has by definition as part an impeller. These facts are expressed in Gellish as follows (ignoring the UID'​s):​+Definitions ​of kinds of things ​can be extended with the explicit modeling of facts that are by definition ​the case for any object of such a kind. The collection of the facts about a concept (kind of thing) that are by definition ​the case is called its //​definition model//. For example, a pipe has by definition as aspect a diameter and a centrifugal pump has by definition as part an impeller. These facts are thus part of the definition models of those kinds of things. Those facts are expressed in Gellish as follows (ignoring the UID'​s):​
  
-^Name of left hand object^Name of relation ​type^Name of right hand object^+^Name of left hand object^Name ​of kind of relation^Name of right hand object^
 | pipe | has by definition as aspect a | diameter| | pipe | has by definition as aspect a | diameter|
 | centrifugal pump | has by definition as part a | impeller| | centrifugal pump | has by definition as part a | impeller|
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 ==== 2.4 Define roles of physical objects ==== ==== 2.4 Define roles of physical objects ====
  
-Often a concept is not really a kind of a physical object, but a kind of role, such as a kind of usage or a kind of location of a physical object. For example, the concept '​driver'​ is a role for which some kinds of physical objects can be used and 'front end bearing'​ is not a kind of bearing, but a bearing that is located at a front end (of a shaft). In such cases the concept shall be defined as a subtype of role or one of its subtypes (such as '​usage'​ or '​located physical object'​. ​[[br]] +Often a concept is not really a kind of a physical object, but a kind of role, such as a kind of usage or application ​or a kind of location of a physical object. For example, the concept '​driver'​ is a role for which some kinds of physical objects can be used and the concept ​'front end bearing'​ is not //a kind of// bearing, but it is a bearing that is located at a front end (of a shaft). In such cases the concept shall be defined as a subtype of role or one of its subtypes (such as 'usage', '​application' or '​located physical object'​. ​\\ 
-So, such a concept shall be defined by a specialization relation with role. If such a role is by definition fulfilled by a particular kind of physical object, then that fact shall be specified as well. \\ +So, such a concept shall be defined by a specialization relation with role. If such a role is by definition fulfilled by a particular kind of physical object, then that fact shall be specified as well as part of the definition model, because the fact is by definition the case. \\ 
-For example, the concept front end bearing is defined in Gellish ​Table as follows (ignoring the unique identifiers and the auxiliary ​facts):+For example, the concept ​'front end bearing' ​is defined in Gellish as follows (ignoring the unique identifiers and the contextual ​facts):
  
 ^Name of left hand object^Name of relation type^Name of right hand object^Description^ ^Name of left hand object^Name of relation type^Name of right hand object^Description^
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 | front end bearing | is by definition a role of a | bearing || | front end bearing | is by definition a role of a | bearing ||
  
-==== 2.5 Define ​roles of aspects ==== +==== 2.5 Define ​intrinsic ​aspects ====
- +
-If the name of a kind of aspect contains a name of a kind of physical object, then the kind aspect is normally by definition possessed by that particular kind of physical object. For example, the concept '​impeller diameter'​ is a diameter that is by definition possessed by an impeller. This means that '​impeller diameter'​ is not really a kind of aspect, but a kind of '​possessed aspect',​ (which is a role of an aspect) in a relation with an impeller. If you nevertheless want to add such a concept to the Gellish Dictionary, then you should not only define the concept by a specialization relation with possessed aspect, but you should also specify that it is by definition a possessed aspect of a true aspect and that it is by definition a possessed aspect of a particular kind of physical object. For example:+
  
 +If the name of a kind of aspect contains a name of a kind of physical object, then the kind aspect is normally by definition possessed by that particular kind of physical object. For example, the concept '​impeller diameter'​ is a diameter that is by definition possessed by an impeller. This means that '​impeller diameter'​ is not really a kind of aspect, but a kind of '​intrinsic aspect',​ (which is a role of an aspect) in a relation with an impeller. If it is nevertheless wanted to add such a concept to the Gellish Dictionary, then the concept shall not only be defined by a specialization relation with '​intrinsic aspect',​ but it shall also be specified that it is by definition an intrinsic aspect of a true aspect and also that it is by definition an intrinsic aspect of a particular kind of physical object. For example:
 +n
 ^Name of left hand object^Name of relation type^Name of right hand object^Description^ ^Name of left hand object^Name of relation type^Name of right hand object^Description^
-| impeller diameter | is a specialization of | possessed ​aspect | being a diameter that is by definition possessed by an impeller| +| impeller diameter | is a specialization of | intrinsic ​aspect | being a diameter that is by definition possessed by an impeller.
-| impeller diameter | is by definition ​a role of a | diameter | +| impeller diameter | is by definition ​an intrinsic ​| diameter | 
-| impeller diameter | is by definition ​a possessed ​aspect of a | impeller |+| impeller diameter | is by definition ​an intrinsic ​aspect of a | impeller |
 Note: By defining such a concept in this way the Gellish language enables computers to verify the consistency of two ways of specification:​ one without decomposition of assemblies and another with decomposition of assemblies. For example, a facility owner may require that a for a centrifugal pump it shall be specified what its impeller diameter is, or which value it shall have, whereas a manufacturer may specify that a delivered centrifugal pump has an impeller and that the impeller has a particular diameter (value). The above specification enables a computer to verify whether the requirement is satisfied, because it can match an impeller diameter of a pump with a diameter of an impeller that is a part of that pump. Note: By defining such a concept in this way the Gellish language enables computers to verify the consistency of two ways of specification:​ one without decomposition of assemblies and another with decomposition of assemblies. For example, a facility owner may require that a for a centrifugal pump it shall be specified what its impeller diameter is, or which value it shall have, whereas a manufacturer may specify that a delivered centrifugal pump has an impeller and that the impeller has a particular diameter (value). The above specification enables a computer to verify whether the requirement is satisfied, because it can match an impeller diameter of a pump with a diameter of an impeller that is a part of that pump.
  
 ==== 2.6 Define qualitative aspects ==== ==== 2.6 Define qualitative aspects ====
  
-Conceptual aspects (qualities and properties) such as colour, diameter, material of construction and information shall be distinguished from qualitative aspects, such as red, 6", stainless steel and standard information. A conceptual aspect shall be defined in the same way as any other concept, such as a kind of physical object: by a specialization relation with its direct supertype. A qualitative aspect shall be defined by an <is a qualification ​of> relation with the conceptual aspect of which it is a qualification ​or with a more general qualitative aspect. \\+Conceptual aspects (qualities and properties) such as colour/color, diameter, material of construction and information shall be distinguished from qualitative aspects, such as red, 6", stainless steel and standard information. A conceptual aspect shall be defined in the same way as any other concept, such as a kind of physical object: by a specialization relation with its direct supertype ​and a textual definition. A qualitative aspect shall be defined by an <is a qualitative subtype ​of> relation with the conceptual aspect of which it is a qualitative subtype ​or with a more general qualitative aspect. \\
 For example: \\ For example: \\
-^Name of left hand object^Name of relation ​type^Name of right hand object^Description^ +^Name of left hand object^Name ​of kind of relation^Name of right hand object^Description^ 
-colour ​| is a specialization ​of | quality | that is equivalent with a rangle ​of frequencies of light in the visible spectrum.| +color | is a kind of | quality | that is equivalent with a range of frequencies of light in the visible spectrum.| 
-| red | is a qualification ​of | colour ​| while being similar to the colour ​of blood. |+| red | is a qualitative subtype ​of | color | while being similar to the color of blood. | 
 + 
 +//Continue with:// [[http://​wiki.gellish.net/​rules_for_names_of_concepts|rules for names of concepts]]
dictionary_extension.1321643033.txt.gz · Last modified: 2017/11/15 11:05 (external edit)