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gellish_english_dictionary [2018/08/07 00:37]
andries made less English specific
gellish_english_dictionary [2018/10/30 22:57] (current)
andries [5. Relations that enable Knowledge-aided design]
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-===== 2. Definitions of kinds of relations =====+===== 2. Searching for kinds of relations =====
  
  
-An essential section ​(domain) of the definitions in the taxonomic dictionary ​are the definitions ​of kinds of relations ​(also called relation types)Kinds of relations typically ​have '​phrases'​ as nameswhich phrases can be used in Gellish ​expressions. For example a composition relation has as name 'is part of', ​which phrase can be used in a Gellish expression such as: A is a part of BSo the Gellish dictionary does not provide ​a definition ​of the separate words, ​like is, a, part and of, but it gives a definition ​of the whole phrase, because the phrase represents a concept. The section of the Gellish taxonomic dictionary that contains the collection of base ontology contains the definition ​of the standard kinds of relations of the Gellish languages. The kinds of relations currently have '​names'​ and '​Gellish phrases'​ in English and in Dutch (Nederlands). That section also contains definitions (and names) of the kinds of the roles that are played by objects in relations of those kinds and it contains definitions of the kinds of things that can play such roles. The definitions of kinds of relations also satisfy the [[:​proper_definition_of_a_concept|rules for proper definitions]] of concepts in Gellish and thus form a consistent subtype-supertype hierarchy of kinds of relations. As all concepts in the dictionary, including the kinds of relations, roles and other kinds of things, are arranged in a subtype-supertype hierarchy of concepts, the Gellish dictionary is also a taxonomy. The collection expressions that form the base ontology in the dictionary composes the top of that subtype-supertype hierarchy of concepts. All other concepts in the dictionary are subtypes of those generic concepts. The data in the Gellish dictionary are stored in a [[:​gellish_table|Gellish database]] or file in Gellish Expression Format. ​The Gellish Expression Format ​is defined ​in the document 'The Gellish syntax and contextual facts'​.+When searching for kinds of relations for expressing information users (and supporting systemsshould be aware that kinds of relations ​are typically denoted in expressions by '​phrases';​ thus kinds of relations have phrases as their '​names'​. The phrases that denote the kinds of relations ​obey to a logical patternThe following patterns can be recognized and should be helpful in searching for the proper kinds of relations
 +  * **- is a / has a -** Information about individual things is typically ​expressed as relations between two individual things. Such relations are typically denoted by phrases that start with 'is a' or can be denoted by their inverse ​phrases ​that typically start with 'has a' or '​has ​as'. Such start wordt are typically followed by the kind of role that one of the objects plays in the relation. Typically such phrases do not terminate with '​a'​. For examplethe phrases: is a friend of, has as friend conform to the pattern. Software that support searching for such phrases should thus enable to search for a combination such words and should display alos the subtypes of found kinds of relations. 
 +  * **- can be / can have -** Knowledge about kinds of things usually expresses possibilities,​ thus they express what can be the case. This is typically expressed as relations between two kinds of things. Such relations are typically denoted by phrases that start with 'can be' or 'can have', followed a kind of role and terminating with '​a'​. Natural language ​expressions ​of knowledge typically also start with '​a'​. For example: 'pump can have as part a bearing'​. In the formalized language we ignore the first '​a', ​whereas we include the second '​a'​ as part of the phrase ​that denotes the standard kind of relation. Thus the formalized expression and its inverse becomes: 
 + 
 +^Name of left hand object^Name of kind of relation^Name of right hand object^ 
 +|pump|can have as part a|bearing| 
 +|bearing|can be a part of a|pump| 
 + 
 +  * **- shall be / shall have -** Requirements about what shall be the case (in a particular applicability context) for things of specific kinds are subtype of possibilities. Such requirements are typically expressed ​as phrases that start with 'shall be' or 'shall have' and are further similar to the possibilities. 
 +  * **- is by definition / has by definition -** Kinds of relations about what is by definition the case for things of particular kinds are subtypes of requirements. It is not only possible, and required but also necessarily the case. Phrases that denote such relations typically start with 'is by definition' ​ or 'has by definition'​ and are further similar to the possibilities. 
 +  * **- is ... / has ... a -** Classification relations and other relations between individual things and kinds of things are typically denoted by phrases that start with '​is'​ or '​has',​ followed by a kind of role and typically terminating with '​a'​. For example, Rotterdam 'is classified as a' city and My car 'has as part a' turbo (in which 'My car' denotes an individual thing and '​turbo'​ denotes a kind of thing). 
 + 
 +All those kinds of relations are defined in the taxonomic dictionary. The phrases can be used in Gellish for making formalized expressions close to natural language. Note that Gellish dictionary does not provide ​definitions ​of the separate words, ​such as //is////a////part// and //of//, but it gives definitions ​of the whole phrases, because the whole phrases represent kind of relation concepts: ways of being related 
 +The definitions ​of the standard kinds of relations of the Gellish languages ​is given in the base ontology section of the Gellish taxonomic dictionary. The kinds of relations currently have '​names'​ and '​Gellish phrases'​ in English and in Dutch (Nederlands) ​and some in German and French. That base ontology ​section also contains definitions (and names) of the kinds of the roles that are played by objects in relations of those kinds and it contains definitions of the kinds of things that can play such roles. The definitions of kinds of relations also satisfy the [[:​proper_definition_of_a_concept|rules for proper definitions]] of concepts in Gellish and thus form a consistent subtype-supertype hierarchy of kinds of relations. As all concepts in the dictionary, including the kinds of relations, roles and other kinds of things, are arranged in a subtype-supertype hierarchy of concepts, the Gellish dictionary is also a taxonomy. The collection ​of expressions that form the base ontology in the dictionary composes the top of that subtype-supertype hierarchy of concepts. All other concepts in the dictionary are subtypes of those generic concepts. The data in the Gellish dictionary are stored in a [[:​gellish_table|Gellish database]] or collection of files in Gellish Expression Format. ​For further information about that format see [[gellish_expression_format|the ​Gellish Expression Format]] and its definition ​in the document 'The Gellish syntax and contextual facts'​.
  
  
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-The Gellish taxonomic dictionary defines concepts by expressing computer interpretable ​facts about the concepts. The prime expressions have the form of specialization relations or qualification relations. The facts are grouped in collections of facts that define domain ​specific ​subsets of the dictionary. In the current Gellish dictionary collections of facts can be distinguished about the following domains:+The Gellish taxonomic dictionary defines concepts by expressing computer interpretable ​expressions of ideas about the concepts. The prime expressions have the form of specialization relations or qualification relations. The expressions ​are grouped in collections of expressions ​that define domain ​related ​subsets of the dictionary. In the current Gellish dictionary collections of expressions ​can be distinguished about the following domains:
  
  
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-Every concept is a subtype of a more generic concept, up to the top concept, called anything.\\ ​ Lower in the hierarchy you will find the more specialized concepts as defined in engineering standards and in proprietary standards. Further specialized concepts, such as catalog items and manufacturer'​s models are again subtypes of more generalized concepts.+Every concept is a subtype of a more generic concept, up to the top concept, called anything. ​ \\ 
 +Lower in the hierarchy you will find the more specialized concepts as defined in engineering standards and in proprietary standards. Further specialized concepts, such as catalog items and manufacturer'​s models are again subtypes of more generalized concepts.
  
  
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     * It contains a definition per concept, whereas ordinary dictionaries usually provide various definitions of a term, where it is unclear whether those definitions are alternative definitions of the same concept or whether they are definitions of different concepts. Thus a smart dictionary explicitly distinguished homonyms (the same term for different concepts) and explicitly specifies which terms are used in the dictionary as true synonyms.     * It contains a definition per concept, whereas ordinary dictionaries usually provide various definitions of a term, where it is unclear whether those definitions are alternative definitions of the same concept or whether they are definitions of different concepts. Thus a smart dictionary explicitly distinguished homonyms (the same term for different concepts) and explicitly specifies which terms are used in the dictionary as true synonyms.
-    * It is completely arranged as a taxonomy, which is a subtype-supertype hierarchy of concepts. This means that each concept is defined as an explicit subtype of one or more supertype concepts by specialization relations (A is a specialization ​of B and B is a specialization ​of C, etc.). +    * It is completely arranged as a taxonomy, which is a subtype-supertype hierarchy of concepts. This means that each concept is defined as an explicit subtype of one or more supertype concepts by specialization relations (A is a kind of B and B is a kind of C, etc.). 
-    * It includes also concepts ​with plural ​term names. For example: line shaft centrifugal pump. +    * It includes also specialized ​concepts ​that are denoted by multiple ​term names. For example: line shaft centrifugal pump. 
-    * It defines ​relation types (being a special kind of concepts). These relation ​types enable to make computer interpretable expressions that express ​facts, including the expression of knowledge and information. +    * It defines ​kinds of relations ​(being a special kind of concepts) ​that are denoted by phrases. These kinds of relation enable to make computer ​and human interpretable expressions that express ​ideas, including the expression of knowledge, requirements,​ definitions ​and other information. 
- +    * It contains explicit relations ​of specified kinds between concepts. For example, kinds of roles that are specific for things ​of particular kinds (and their subtypes) are not only related to their supertype conceptbut also to the kind of thing of which members are by definition playing such roleThese additional relations make that the dictionary ​is not only also taxonomy but also an ontology
- +    * It can be integrated with expressions ​of knowledge and with documents (multi-madia files), thus making it also a knowledge base or encyclopedia.
-The fact that the Gellish dictionary ​of Formal English satisfies these rules means that the Gellish Dictionary itself defines the Gellish Formal English language. In Gellish Formal English those relation types have names and synonyms that consist of standardized phrases. For example: the phrase 'is a part of' can be used to express the fact that A is a part of Bwhereas the phrase 'can have as part a' can be used to express ​the knowledge that a whole of a particular ​kind can have as part a component ​of a particular kindFor example, ​the fact that a pump can have a bearing ​is expressed in Gellish Formal English as:  +
- +
- +
-<​code>​ +
-pump can have as part bearing+
-</​code>​ +
- +
- +
-All three elements in this expression are names of standard Gellish English concepts that are defined in the Gellish dictionary of Formal English. +
- +
     * Concepts are related to other concepts in various ways by explicit relations of standardized relation types. Those additional relations express additional knowledge about the concepts. This knowledge about the concepts can be used by computers, because such knowledge about a concept is inherited by all the subtypes of that concept in the subtype hierarchy (taxonomy).     * Concepts are related to other concepts in various ways by explicit relations of standardized relation types. Those additional relations express additional knowledge about the concepts. This knowledge about the concepts can be used by computers, because such knowledge about a concept is inherited by all the subtypes of that concept in the subtype hierarchy (taxonomy).
     * It uses one language independent unique identifier (a natural number) to represent each concept. This enables that facts that are expressed in one language can be automatically presented by a computer in any other language for which a dictionary is available.     * It uses one language independent unique identifier (a natural number) to represent each concept. This enables that facts that are expressed in one language can be automatically presented by a computer in any other language for which a dictionary is available.
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     * It is computer interpretable and system independent.     * It is computer interpretable and system independent.
  
 +The Gellish Dictionary itself defines the Gellish languages: it is a language defining ontology. ​
 ===== 5. Relations that enable Knowledge-aided design ===== ===== 5. Relations that enable Knowledge-aided design =====
  
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-The above-mentioned Gellish language relations define how to apply that knowledge to create bearings for individual pumps. For example, assume that P-101 is classified as a pump, then software that is Gellish English ​powered can conclude that+The above-mentioned Gellish language relations define how to apply that knowledge to create bearings for individual pumps. For example, assume that P-101 is classified as a pump, then software that is powered ​with Gellish ​can conclude that
  
  
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-//Continue with// ​ [[:​facility_information_models|Facility Information Models]]+//Continue with// ​ [[:​facility_information_models|Integrated information]]
  
gellish_english_dictionary.1533595035.txt.gz · Last modified: 2018/08/07 00:37 by andries