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gellish_english_dictionary [2018/10/30 22:49]
andries [4. What makes the Gellish Dictionary a Smart Dictionary]
gellish_english_dictionary [2020/03/03 13:30] (current)
andries typo correction manufacturers
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 ====== The taxonomic dictionary ====== ====== The taxonomic dictionary ======
  
 +===== 1. Some definitions =====
 +==== What is a taxonomy? ====
  
-===== 1. The taxonomic dictionary content =====+A taxonomy is a hierarchical network of concepts, in which each concept is related to one or more other concepts that are its supertype concepts. The top of the total hierarchy is the concept '​anything'​. A domain taxonomy is a taxonomy for a particular domain that has one or more top level concepts that are subtype-concepts of anything.\\  
 +A subtype-supertype relation is also called a specialization-generalization relation and can be denoted by the phrase <is a kind of> or synonymous phrases.\\  
 +If a subtype concept is qualitative or is a value, then the kind of relation between the qualitative value and its conceptual supertype concept can be specified by a relation that is a specialization of such a subtype-supertype relation and is called a qualitative subtype relation. It is denoted by the phrase 'is a qualitative subtype of'.\\  
 +If a subtype concept is a manufacturers model or model and size, then the kind or relation may be specified by a further subtype of the qualitative subtype which is denoted by the phrase 'is a manufacturers model of'.\\  
 +Examples of subtype-supertype relations are:  
 +  * centrifugal pump <is a kind of> pump 
 +  * man <is a kind of> person 
 +  * red <is a qualitative subtype of> color 
 +  * Ford mustang <is a manufacturers model of> car 
 +In Gellish, the concepts are represented by language independent unique identifiers that enable that each concepts is denoted by one or more names, synonyms, codes, abbreviations and translations.
  
 +==== What is a taxonomic dictionary? ====
  
-[[:​gellish_english_dictionary|Gellish ​taxonomic dictionary]], such as the dictionary of Formal English, ​is an electronic '​smart' ​dictionary ​and taxonomy and ontology. This means that it contains definitions ​of concepts, ​each of which is identified by unique identifier (UID) and can be referenced by one or more '​names'​ (termsincluding synonyms, abbreviations and codes) and includes relations between concepts, among others subtype-supertype relations. The vocabulary of the formal language, being the names of conceptsare mainly normal natural language terms, many of them can also be found in ordinary English dictionaries. All definitions satisfy the [[:​proper_definition_of_a_concept|rules for proper definitions]] of concepts in Gellish. This means that every concept not only has a textual definition, but also that they have at least an explicit relation with its supertype concept(s) ​and thus together they form a consistent subtype-supertype hierarchy of concepts or taxonomy. The [[:​gellish|Gellish Modeling Methodology]] provides guidelines for the extension of the taxonomic dictionary and for the creation of taxonomic dictionaries or just vocabularies in other languages. Such extensions or replacements may lead to separate [[:​proper_definition_of_a_concept|domain dictionaries]] for specialized application areas. As long as the common unique identifiers are used, the availability of vocabularies in various languages enable [[:​automated_translation|automated translation]] of Gellish expressions or presentations ​in a generalized user interface.+A taxonomic dictionary is dictionary of which each lemma represents a name of a conceptwhereas ​the concepts are explicitly defined ​and related to each other as in a taxonomy.
  
 +==== What is an ontology? ====
  
-The Gellish basic language definition in the taxonomic dictionary ​of Formal English ​is free of charge available under Open Source conditions (through an Open Source License) via this website. Extended versions and various ​knowledge ​models are available for licensees or can be purchased via [[http://​shop.gellish.net|the webshop]].+An ontology is a taxonomic dictionary ​that is extended with relations ​of other kinds between concepts, whereas those relations represent ​knowledge ​about the related concepts.
  
 +===== 2. The taxonomic dictionary content =====
  
-===== 2. Searching for kinds of relations ===== 
  
 +A [[:​gellish_english_dictionary|Gellish taxonomic dictionary]],​ such as the dictionary of Formal English, is an electronic '​smart'​ dictionary that is also a taxonomy and an ontology. This means that it contains definitions of concepts, each of which is identified by a unique identifier (UID) and can be referenced by one or more '​names'​ (terms, including synonyms, abbreviations and codes) and includes relations between concepts, among others subtype-supertype relations. The vocabulary of the formal language, being the names of concepts, are mainly ordinary natural language terms, many of them can also be found in ordinary English dictionaries. All definitions satisfy the [[:​proper_definition_of_a_concept|rules for proper definitions]] of concepts in Gellish. This means among others that every concept has a textual definition that refers to its supertype concept(s), and it also means that they have at least one explicit relation with its supertype concept. Thus together the concepts form a consistent subtype-supertype hierarchy of concepts or taxonomy. The [[:​gellish|Gellish Modeling Methodology]] provides guidelines for the extension of the taxonomic dictionary and for the creation of domain taxonomic dictionaries or just vocabularies in other languages. Such extensions or modifications may lead to separate [[:​proper_definition_of_a_concept|domain dictionaries]] for specialized application areas. As long as the common unique identifiers are used, the availability of vocabularies in various languages enable [[:​automated_translation|automated translation]] of Gellish expressions and their presentations in a generalized user interface.
 +
 +
 +The Gellish basic language definition in the taxonomic dictionary of Formal English is free of charge available under Open Source conditions (through an Open Source License) via this website. Extended editions and various knowledge models are available for licensees or can be purchased via [[http://​shop.gellish.net|the webshop]].
 +
 +
 +===== 3. Kinds of relations =====
 +
 +
 +The most important concepts in the Gellish taxonomic dictionary are kinds of relations. They determine the semantic expression power of the language. Each kind of relation is identified by a UID and is denoted by a name, which may be a short expression, such as 'being manager of an organization'​. Such a name is accompanied by a base phrase, such as 'is a manager of' and an inverse phrase, such as 'has as manager. A separate relation denotes which kind of thing should play the first role in the relation (in this example the role '​manager'​ and the role player '​person'​) and which kind or thing should play the second role (the role '​managed'​ and the role player '​organization'​). A base phrase requires that the player of the first role is located at the left hand of the phrase according to the normal English grammar and the player of the second role is at its right hand side. For an inverse phrase this is the other way around.  ​
  
 When searching for kinds of relations for expressing information users (and supporting systems) should be aware that kinds of relations are typically denoted in expressions by '​phrases';​ thus kinds of relations have phrases as their '​names'​. The phrases that denote the kinds of relations obey to a logical pattern. The following patterns can be recognized and should be helpful in searching for the proper kinds of relations: When searching for kinds of relations for expressing information users (and supporting systems) should be aware that kinds of relations are typically denoted in expressions by '​phrases';​ thus kinds of relations have phrases as their '​names'​. The phrases that denote the kinds of relations obey to a logical pattern. The following patterns can be recognized and should be helpful in searching for the proper kinds of relations:
-  * **- is a / has a -** Information about individual things is typically expressed as relations between two individual things. Such relations are typically denoted by phrases that start with 'is a' or can be denoted by their inverse phrases that typically start with 'has a' or 'has as'. Such start wordt are typically followed by the kind of role that one of the objects ​plays in the relation. Typically such phrases do not terminate with '​a'​. For example, the phrases: is a friend ofhas as friend conform to the pattern. Software that support searching for such phrases should thus enable to search for a combination such words and should display ​alos the subtypes of found kinds of relations. +  * **- is a / has a -** Information about individual things is typically expressed as relations between two individual things. Such relations are typically denoted by phrases that conform to a particular pattern. Typically the phrases ​start with 'is a' or can be denoted by their inverse phrases that typically start with 'has a' or 'has as'. Such words are typically followed by the kind of role that is played by one of the objects in the relation. Typically such phrases do not terminate with '​a'​. For example, the phrases: ​'is a friend of' and 'has as friend' both conform to that pattern. Software that support searching for such phrases should thus enable to search for a combination such words and should display ​also the subtypes of found kinds of relations. 
-  * **- can be / can have -** Knowledge about kinds of things usually expresses possibilities,​ thus they express what can be the case. This is typically expressed as relations between two kinds of things. Such relations are typically denoted by phrases that start with 'can be' or 'can have', followed a kind of role and terminating with '​a'​. Natural language expressions of knowledge typically also start with '​a'​. For example: 'a pump can have as part a bearing'​. In the formalized language we ignore the first '​a',​ whereas we include the second '​a'​ as part of the phrase that denotes the kind of relation. Thus the formalized expression and its inverse becomes:+  * **- can be / can have -** Knowledge about kinds of things usually expresses possibilities,​ thus they express what can be the case. This is typically expressed as relations between two kinds of things. Such relations are typically denoted by phrases that start with 'can be' or 'can have', followed a kind of role and terminating with '​a'​. Natural language expressions of knowledge typically also start with '​a'​. For example: 'a pump can have as part a bearing'​. In the formalized language we ignore the first '​a',​ whereas we include the second '​a'​ as part of the phrase that denotes the standard ​kind of relation. Thus the formalized expression and its inverse becomes:
  
 ^Name of left hand object^Name of kind of relation^Name of right hand object^ ^Name of left hand object^Name of kind of relation^Name of right hand object^
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-===== 3. Overview of the dictionary content =====+===== 4. Overview of the dictionary content =====
  
  
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-    * Generic concepts as required to define the Gellish grammar (especially ​the kinds of relations)+    * Generic concepts as required to define the Gellish grammar (in particular ​the kinds of relations, roles and related concept (role players)
     * Documents, information and identification     * Documents, information and identification
     * Occurrences,​ events, activities and processes, including physical, chemical, and business processes.     * Occurrences,​ events, activities and processes, including physical, chemical, and business processes.
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-===== 4. What makes the Gellish Dictionary a Smart Dictionary =====+===== 5. What makes the Gellish Dictionary a Smart Dictionary =====
  
  
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     * It contains explicit relations of specified kinds between concepts. For example, kinds of roles that are specific for things of particular kinds (and their subtypes) are not only related to their supertype concept, but also to the kind of thing of which members are by definition playing such a role. These additional relations make that the dictionary is not only also a taxonomy but also an ontology.     * It contains explicit relations of specified kinds between concepts. For example, kinds of roles that are specific for things of particular kinds (and their subtypes) are not only related to their supertype concept, but also to the kind of thing of which members are by definition playing such a role. These additional relations make that the dictionary is not only also a taxonomy but also an ontology.
     * It can be integrated with expressions of knowledge and with documents (multi-madia files), thus making it also a knowledge base or encyclopedia.     * It can be integrated with expressions of knowledge and with documents (multi-madia files), thus making it also a knowledge base or encyclopedia.
- 
- 
-The Gellish Dictionary itself defines the Gellish languages: it is a language defining ontology. ​ 
- 
- 
     * Concepts are related to other concepts in various ways by explicit relations of standardized relation types. Those additional relations express additional knowledge about the concepts. This knowledge about the concepts can be used by computers, because such knowledge about a concept is inherited by all the subtypes of that concept in the subtype hierarchy (taxonomy).     * Concepts are related to other concepts in various ways by explicit relations of standardized relation types. Those additional relations express additional knowledge about the concepts. This knowledge about the concepts can be used by computers, because such knowledge about a concept is inherited by all the subtypes of that concept in the subtype hierarchy (taxonomy).
     * It uses one language independent unique identifier (a natural number) to represent each concept. This enables that facts that are expressed in one language can be automatically presented by a computer in any other language for which a dictionary is available.     * It uses one language independent unique identifier (a natural number) to represent each concept. This enables that facts that are expressed in one language can be automatically presented by a computer in any other language for which a dictionary is available.
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     * It is computer interpretable and system independent.     * It is computer interpretable and system independent.
  
- +The Gellish Dictionary itself defines the Gellish languages: it is a language defining ontology. ​ 
-===== 5. Relations that enable Knowledge-aided design =====+===== 6. Relations that enable Knowledge-aided design =====
  
  
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-The above-mentioned Gellish language relations define how to apply that knowledge to create bearings for individual pumps. For example, assume that P-101 is classified as a pump, then software that is Gellish English ​powered can conclude that+The above-mentioned Gellish language relations define how to apply that knowledge to create bearings for individual pumps. For example, assume that P-101 is classified as a pump, then software that is powered ​with Gellish ​can conclude that
  
  
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-//Continue with// ​ [[:​facility_information_models|Facility Information Models]]+//Continue with// ​ [[:​facility_information_models|Integrated information]]
  
gellish_english_dictionary.1540936146.txt.gz · Last modified: 2018/10/30 22:49 by andries